The Remnant of Israel
Paul claims that God has not rejected his people. He recalls a time when Elijah said to God that he was the only one left worshiping him and his life was in danger. God replied that there were 7000 men that he had in reserve. Now is similar, God has a remnant of the old being pushed into the new way by grace. It also seems to be saying that those who are not pushed into the new way are having their hearts hardened.
Honestly, I had a bit of difficulty understanding this passage, so if anyone thinks I got something wrong please speak up. It basically seems to be saying that some people are staying with the old ways and some are coming to the new way, which is fine. But, it also seems to be saying that those who are staying in the old way are having their minds manipulated by God. That part I don't like at all.
Gentiles Grafted In
Paul talks of adding Gentiles into the fold. He uses a metaphor of a tree. Unbelieving Jews are being pruned out and gentiles are being grafted in their place. Then he warns the Gentiles that they must not become arrogant. God has cut off others, so if you go bad you can get cut off too. But don't worry, it is always possible that God will graft you back in again in the future. He also mentions that God has mercy for you but severity for those who have fallen.
This was strange, I guess because there is so much talking in metaphor. Basically it seems that Paul is expanding his ministry and justifying it. Although again, it does has it's logic to it. If he is spreading the glory of God (in his mind) why not spread it to as many people as possible. I wonder how people square the omnibenevolence with the severity for those who have fallen.
The Mystery of Israel's Salvation
By saving the gentiles, we will also save all of Israel.
That sounds good I suppose.